Silva Fennica : quarterly issues : 30(2–3) : sa3023229.htm

Heikki Hänninen, Ilkka Leinonen, Tapani Repo & Seppo Kellomäki. 1996.

Overwintering and productivity of Scots pine in a changing climate

Silva Fennica 30(2–3): 229–237

The productivity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under changing climatic conditions in the southern part of Finland was studied by scenario analysis with a gap-type forest ecosystem model. Standard simulations with the model predicted an increased rate of growth and hence increased productivity as a result of climatic warming. The gap-type model was refined by introducing an overwintering submodel describing the annual growth cycle, frost hardiness, and frost damage of the trees. Simulations with the refined gap-type model produced results conflicting with those of the standard simulations, i.e., drastically decreased productivity caused by mortality and growth-reducing damage due to premature dehardening in the changing climate. The overwintering submodel was tested with frost hardiness data from Scots pine saplings growing at their natural site 1) under natural conditions and 2) under elevated temperature conditions, both in open-top chambers. The model predicted the frost hardiness dynamics quite accurately for the natural conditions while underestimating the frost hardiness of the saplings for the elevated temperature conditions. These findings show that 1) the overwintering submodel requires further development, and 2) the possible reduction of productivity caused by frost damage in a changing climate is less drastic than predicted in the scenario analysis. The results as a whole demonstrated the need to consider the overwintering of trees in scenario analysis carried out with ecosystem models for boreal conditions. More generally, the results revealed a problem that exists in scenario analysis with ecological models: the accuracy of a model in predicting the ecosystem functioning under present climatic conditions does not guarantee the realism of the model, nor for this reason the accuracy for predicting the ecosystem functioning under changing climatic conditions. This finding calls for the continuous rigorous experimental testing of ecological models used for assessing the ecological implications of climatic change.

climatic change, frost damage, gap-type model, model accuracy, model realism, overwintering, phenology

University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland. Fax +358 13 251 4444, E-mail

Received 22 September 1995 Accepted 12 June 1996
ISSN 0037-5330