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Scots pine – Excellence and image

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Research based information on Scots pine properties and uses



Technical properties and image


Visual properties

Broman, N.O. 2000. Means to measure the aesthetic properties of wood. Doctoral thesis. Luleå University of Technology.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. 2006. Wood colour in sapwood and heartwood of Nordic Scots pine and the changes under UV radiation. In: Kurjatko, S. et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the 5th IUFRO symposium Wood Structure and Properties '06: 233–238.
| table of contents |

Grekin, M. 2007. Color and color uniformity variation of Scots pine wood in the air-dry condition. Wood and Fiber Science 39(2): 279–290.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. et al. 2005. Colour change of Nordic Scots pine wood under UV radiation - A laboratory approach. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| pdf | poster |

Hakkila, P. 1968. Geographical variation of some properties of pine and spruce pulpwood in Finland. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae 66(8): 1–60.

Hautamäki, S. et al. 2010. Factors and models for the grade distributions of sawn timber for Scots pine and Norway spruce in Finland and north-western Russia: appearance quality and visual strength. Baltic Forestry 16(1) (in print).

Jonsson, R. 2006. Increasing the competitiveness of wood in material substitution: a method for assessing and prioritizing customer needs. Journal of Wood Science 52(2): 154–162.
| www |

Jonsson, O. et al. 2008. Consumer Perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels and composites: A repertory grid study. Wood and Fiber Science 40(4): 663–678.
| www |

Nakamura, M. et al. 1993. Influences of knots and grooves on psychological images of wood wall-panels. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39(2): 152–160.

Nakamura, M. et al. 1994. Visual factors influencing psychological images of woods and stones. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40(4): 364–371.

Rice, J. et al. 2006. Appearance wood products and psychological well-being. Wood and Fiber Science 38(4): 645–658.
| www |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2004. Timber assortments and selected aesthetic wood properties of Nordic Scots pine. The Forestry Woodchain - Quantifying and forecasting quality from forest to end product.
| pdf | poster |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

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Strength and durability

Björklund, L. & Walfridsson, E. 1993. Tallvedens egenskaper i Sverige - Torr-rådensitet, kärnvedhalt, fuktighet och barkhalt. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Forest Products, Rapport nr 234.

Edlund, M.-L. 1998. Durability of Wood in Ground Contact Tested in Field and Laboratory. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 81.

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. & Surini, T. 2008. Shear strength and perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength of defect-free Scots pine wood from mature stands in Finland and Sweden. Wood Science and Technology 42(1): 75–91.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variation in Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from Finland and Sweden. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variations in basic density, shrinkage and shrinkage anisotropy of Scots pine wood from mature mineral soil stands in Finland and Sweden. Baltic Forestry 16(1) (in print).

Hanhijärvi, A. & Ranta-Maunus, A. 2008. Development of strength grading of timber using combined measurement techniques. Report of the Combigrade-project - phase 2. VTT Publications 686.
| pdf |

Hautamäki, S. et al. 2010. Factors and models for the grade distributions of sawn timber for Scots pine and Norway spruce in Finland and north-western Russia: appearance quality and visual strength. Baltic Forestry 16(1) (in print).

Hudson, W. 1967. The strength properties of European redwood and whitewood. Ministry of Technology. Fores Products Research. Special Report No 24.

Kilpeläinen, H. et al. 2010. Factors and models for the bending strength and stiffness of sawn timber for Scots pine and Norway spruce in Finland and north-western Russia. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Lindström, H. et al. 2009. Using non-destructive testing to assess modulus of elasticity of Pinus sylvestris trees. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 24(3): 247–257.
| www |

Moore, J. 2009. Mechanical Properties of Scots Pine Structural Timber. Napier University, Centre for Timber Engineering.
| presentation |

Nevalainen, S. 2004. Decay resistance of Scots pine from Northern Finland. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| poster |

Ranta-Maunus, A. 2007. Strength of Finnish grown timber. VTT Publications 668.
| pdf |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Stöd, R. & Verkasalo, E. 2008. Bending strength and stiffness of sawn timber and clear wood of Scots pine from commercial thinnings. Wood Material Science and Engineering (submitted).

Vadla, K. 2006. Virkesegenskaper hos gran og furu fra forskjellige lokaliteter in Sör-Norge. Summary: Wood Properties of Spruce and Pine from Various Sites in Southern Norway. Norsk insitutt for skog og landskap, Forskning fra Skog og landskap 01/2006.
| pdf |

Vadla, K. 2008. Virkesegenskaper hos bartrevirke fra forskjellige lokaliteter in Nord-Norge - densitet, avsmaling, bark og kjerneved. Summary: Wood Properties of Conifers from Various Sites in Northern Norway – density, taper, bark and heartwood. Norsk insitutt for skog og landskap, Forskning fra Skog og landskap 9/08.
| pdf |

Verkasalo, E. & Kilpeläinen, H. 2004. Saw Timber Recovery and Selected Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood from Scots Pine on Drained Peatlands in Finland. In: Päivänen, J. (ed.). Wise Use of Peatlands. Proceedings of the 12th International Peat Congress, Vol. 1: 521–530.

Verkasalo, E. & Leban, J. M. 2002. MOE and MOR in static bending of small clear specimens of Scots pine, Norway spruce and European fir from Finland and France and their prediction for the comparison of wood quality. Paperi ja Puu - Paper and Timber 84(5): 332–340.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

Wilhelmsson, L. 2001. Characterisation of Wood Properties for Improved Utilisation of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 216.

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Stability and straightness

Björklund, L. & Walfridsson, E. 1993. Tallvedens egenskaper i Sverige - Torr-rådensitet, kärnvedhalt, fuktighet och barkhalt. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Forest Products, Rapport nr 234.

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variations in basic density, shrinkage and shrinkage anisotropy of Scots pine wood from mature mineral soil stands in Finland and Sweden. Baltic Forestry 16(1) (in print).

Hakkila, P. 1968. Geographical variation of some properties of pine and spruce pulpwood in Finland. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae 66(8): 1–60.

Sandberg, D. 1999. Weathering of Radial and Tangential Wood Surfaces of Pine and Spruce. Holzforcshung 53(4): 355–364.
| www |

Stöd, R. 2009. Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from commercial thinnings in Finland. In: Ispas, M. & Gurau, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conferece ICWSE "Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium" 2009: 15–20.

Verkasalo, E. & Kilpeläinen, H. 2004. Saw Timber Recovery and Selected Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood from Scots Pine on Drained Peatlands in Finland. In: Päivänen, J. (ed.). Wise Use of Peatlands. Proceedings of the 12th International Peat Congress, Vol. 1: 521–530.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

Back - Stability and straightness | Back to top


Tooling and jointing ability

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. & Surini, T. 2008. Shear strength and perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength of defect-free Scots pine wood from mature stands in Finland and Sweden. Wood Science and Technology 42(1): 75–91.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variation in Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from Finland and Sweden. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variations in basic density, shrinkage and shrinkage anisotropy of Scots pine wood from mature mineral soil stands in Finland and Sweden. Baltic Forestry 16(1) (in print).

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

Wilhelmsson, L. 2001. Characterisation of Wood Properties for Improved Utilisation of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 216.

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Usability and safety in service

Björklund, L. & Walfridsson, E. 1993. Tallvedens egenskaper i Sverige - Torr-rådensitet, kärnvedhalt, fuktighet och barkhalt. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Forest Products, Rapport nr 234.

Edlund, M.-L. 1998. Durability of Wood in Ground Contact Tested in Field and Laboratory. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 81.

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. 2006. Wood colour in sapwood and heartwood of Nordic Scots pine and the changes under UV radiation. In: Kurjatko, S. et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the 5th IUFRO symposium Wood Structure and Properties '06: 233–238.
| table of contents |

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Nevalainen, S. 2004. Decay resistance of Scots pine from Northern Finland. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| poster |

Sandberg, D. 1999. Weathering of Radial and Tangential Wood Surfaces of Pine and Spruce. Holzforcshung 53(4): 355–364.
| www |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Vadla, K. 2006. Virkesegenskaper hos gran og furu fra forskjellige lokaliteter in Sör-Norge. Summary: Wood Properties of Spruce and Pine from Various Sites in Southern Norway. Norsk insitutt for skog og landskap, Forskning fra Skog og landskap 01/2006.
| pdf |

Vadla, K. 2008. Virkesegenskaper hos bartrevirke fra forskjellige lokaliteter in Nord-Norge - densitet, avsmaling, bark og kjerneved. Summary: Wood Properties of Conifers from Various Sites in Northern Norway – density, taper, bark and heartwood. Norsk insitutt for skog og landskap, Forskning fra Skog og landskap 9/08.
| pdf |

Wilhelmsson, L. 2001. Characterisation of Wood Properties for Improved Utilisation of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 216.

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Environmentally friendly material


Renewable material

Forest Finland in brief 2009. Finnish Forest Research Institute.
| pdf |

Finnish Statistical Yearbook of Forestry 2009. Finnish Forest Research Institute.

Mikkelä, H. et al. (eds.) 2000. The State of Forestry in Finland 2000. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Finland. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Publications 5a/2000.
| pdf |

Parviainen, J. et al. (eds.) 2007. State of Finland´s Forests 2007. Based on the Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Publications 7a/2007.
| pdf |

Pingoud, K. et al. 2003. Greenhouse gas impacts of harvested wood products. Evaluation and development of methods. VTT Research Notes 2189.
| pdf |

State of Europe´s forests 2007. The MCPFE report on sustainable forest management in Europe. Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe.
| pdf |

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Confirmed origin of wood

Mikkelä, H. et al. (eds.) 2000. The State of Forestry in Finland 2000. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Finland. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Publications 5a/2000.
| pdf |

Parviainen, J. et al. (eds.) 2007. State of Finland´s Forests 2007. Based on the Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Publications 7a/2007.
| pdf |

State of Europe´s forests 2007. The MCPFE report on sustainable forest management in Europe. Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe.
| pdf |

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Energy efficiency

Gustavsson, L. et al. 2006. Carbon dioxide balance of wood substitution: comparing concrete- and wood-framed buildings. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 667–691.
| www |

Haapio, A. 2008. Environmental Assessment of Buildings. TKK Reports in Forest Products Technology, Series A2.
| pdf |

Jokisalo, J. & Kurnitski, J. 2002. Simulation of energy consumption in typical Finnish detached house - Preliminary report. Helsinki University of Technology - Department of Mechanical Engineering - Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Report B74.
| pdf |

Reid, H. et al. 2004. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: a review of evidence and key issues for sustainable development. International Institute for Environment and Development – The Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management.
| pdf |

Sathre, R. & Gustavsson, L. 2009. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change. Applied Energy 86(2): 251–257.
| www |

Sathre, R. & O'Connor, J. 2008. A synthesis of research on wood products & greenhouse gas impacts. FPInnovations Forintek TR-19.
| pdf |

Werner, F. & Richter, K. 2007. Wooden building products in comparative LCA. A literature review. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12(7): 470–479.
| www |

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Climate change and carbon sequestration

Forests, carbon and climate change - A synthesis of science findings 2009. Oregon Forest Resources Institute.
| pdf |

Gustavsson, L. et al. 2006. Carbon dioxide balance of wood substitution: comparing concrete- and wood-framed buildings. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 667–691.
| www |

Haapio, A. 2008. Environmental Assessment of Buildings. TKK Reports in Forest Products Technology, Series A2.
| pdf |

Pingoud, K. et al. 2003. Greenhouse gas impacts of harvested wood products. Evaluation and development of methods. VTT Research Notes 2189.
| pdf |

Reid, H. et al. 2004. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: a review of evidence and key issues for sustainable development. International Institute for Environment and Development – The Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management.
| pdf |

Sathre, R. & Gustavsson, L. 2009. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change. Applied Energy 86(2): 251–257.
| www |

Sathre, R. & O'Connor, J. 2008. A synthesis of research on wood products & greenhouse gas impacts. FPInnovations Forintek TR-19.
| pdf |

Taverna, R. et al. 2007. The CO2 effects of the Swiss forestry and timber industry. Federal office for the environment FOEN 0739.
| pdf |

Vares, S. 2000. LCA-House - a tool for life cycle assessment of buildings. Proceedings of the International Conference Sustainable Building 2000: 722–724.

Werner, F. & Richter, K. 2007. Wooden building products in comparative LCA. A literature review. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12(7): 470–479.
| www |

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Potential for recycling and source of energy

Finnish Statistical Yearbook of Forestry 2009. Finnish Forest Research Institute.

Sathre, R. & Gustavsson, L. 2009. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change. Applied Energy 86(2): 251–257.
| www |

Sathre, R. & O'Connor, J. 2008. A synthesis of research on wood products & greenhouse gas impacts. FPInnovations Forintek TR-19.
| pdf |

Steierer, F. 2007. Wood Energy in Europe and North America: A new estimate of volumes and flows. World sustainable energy days 2007.
| pdf |

Taverna, R. et al. 2007. The CO2 effects of the Swiss forestry and timber industry. Federal office for the environment FOEN 0739.
| pdf |

Werner, F. & Richter, K. 2007. Wooden building products in comparative LCA. A literature review. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12(7): 470–479.
| www |

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End product segments


Joinery products

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. & Surini, T. 2008. Shear strength and perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength of defect-free Scots pine wood from mature stands in Finland and Sweden. Wood Science and Technology 42(1): 75–91.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variation in Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from Finland and Sweden. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Gull, A.-L. 2004. Comparison of Component Alternatives for Window Production. Master's Thesis. Helsinki University of Technology. Department of Forest Products Technology.

Hakkila, P. 1968. Geographical variation of some properties of pine and spruce pulpwood in Finland. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae 66(8): 1–60.

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Manninen, J. 2003. Development of new product alternatives for Thermowood. Master's Thesis. Helsinki University of Technology. Department of Forest Products Technology.

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Roos, A. & Nyrud, A. Q. 2008. Description of green versus environmentally indifferent consumers of wood products in Scandivavia: flooring and decking. Journal of Wood Science 54(5): 402–407.
| www |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Stöd, R. 2009. Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from commercial thinnings in Finland. In: Ispas, M. & Gurau, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conferece ICWSE "Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium" 2009: 15–20.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

Virtanen, A. et al. 2007. The UK and German constructions industry foresight and respective value proposition ingredients to the industrial customers. University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Economics. Reports 45.

Wilhelmsson, L. 2001. Characterisation of Wood Properties for Improved Utilisation of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 216.

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Interior products

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. 2006. Wood colour in sapwood and heartwood of Nordic Scots pine and the changes under UV radiation. In: Kurjatko, S. et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the 5th IUFRO symposium Wood Structure and Properties '06: 233–238.
| table of contents |

Grekin, M. 2007. Color and color uniformity variation of Scots pine wood in the air-dry condition. Wood and Fiber Science 39(2): 279–290.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Surini, T. 2008. Shear strength and perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength of defect-free Scots pine wood from mature stands in Finland and Sweden. Wood Science and Technology 42(1): 75–91.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variation in Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from Finland and Sweden. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Grekin, M. et al. 2005. Colour change of Nordic Scots pine wood under UV radiation - A laboratory approach. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| pdf | poster |

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2004. Timber assortments and selected aesthetic wood properties of Nordic Scots pine. The Forestry Woodchain - Quantifying and forecasting quality from forest to end product.
| pdf | poster |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Roos, A. & Nyrud, A. Q. 2008. Description of green versus environmentally indifferent consumers of wood products in Scandivavia: flooring and decking. Journal of Wood Science 54(5): 402–407.
| www |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Stöd, R. 2009. Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from commercial thinnings in Finland. In: Ispas, M. & Gurau, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conferece ICWSE "Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium" 2009: 15–20.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

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Furniture and fittings

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. 2006. Wood colour in sapwood and heartwood of Nordic Scots pine and the changes under UV radiation. In: Kurjatko, S. et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the 5th IUFRO symposium Wood Structure and Properties '06: 233–238.
| table of contents |

Grekin, M. 2007. Color and color uniformity variation of Scots pine wood in the air-dry condition. Wood and Fiber Science 39(2): 279–290.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variation in Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from Finland and Sweden. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Grekin, M. et al. 2005. Colour change of Nordic Scots pine wood under UV radiation - A laboratory approach. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| pdf | poster |

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2004. Timber assortments and selected aesthetic wood properties of Nordic Scots pine. The Forestry Woodchain - Quantifying and forecasting quality from forest to end product.
| pdf | poster |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Stöd, R. 2009. Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from commercial thinnings in Finland. In: Ispas, M. & Gurau, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conferece ICWSE "Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium" 2009: 15–20.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

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Structural products

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. & Surini, T. 2008. Shear strength and perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength of defect-free Scots pine wood from mature stands in Finland and Sweden. Wood Science and Technology 42(1): 75–91.
| www |

Hanhijärvi, A. & Ranta-Maunus, A. 2008. Development of strength grading of timber using combined measurement techniques. Report of the Combigrade-project - phase 2. VTT Publications 686.
| pdf |

Hautamäki, S. et al. 2010. Factors and models for the grade distributions of sawn timber for Scots pine and Norway spruce in Finland and north-western Russia: appearance quality and visual strength. Baltic Forestry 16(1) (in print).

Hudson, W. 1967. The strength properties of European redwood and whitewood. Ministry of Technology. Fores Products Research. Special Report No 24.

Kilpeläinen, H. et al. 2010. Factors and models for the bending strength and stiffness of sawn timber for Scots pine and Norway spruce in Finland and north-western Russia. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit.

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Moore, J. 2009. Mechanical Properties of Scots Pine Structural Timber. Napier University, Centre for Timber Engineering.
| presentation |

Ranta-Maunus, A. 2007. Strength of Finnish grown timber. VTT Publications 668.
| pdf |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Stöd, R. 2009. Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from commercial thinnings in Finland. In: Ispas, M. & Gurau, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conferece ICWSE "Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium" 2009: 15–20.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

Virtanen, A. et al. 2007. The UK and German constructions industry foresight and respective value proposition ingredients to the industrial customers. University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Economics. Reports 45.

Wilhelmsson, L. 2001. Characterisation of Wood Properties for Improved Utilisation of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 216.

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Log houses and wood-element houses

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Hanhijärvi, A. & Ranta-Maunus, A. 2008. Development of strength grading of timber using combined measurement techniques. Report of the Combigrade-project - phase 2. VTT Publications 686.
| pdf |

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Ranta-Maunus, A. 2007. Strength of Finnish grown timber. VTT Publications 668.
| pdf |

Riekkinen, M. et al. 2005. Visual and machining properties of Nordic Scots pine for joinery and furniture industry. In: Innes, J.L. et al. (eds.). Forests in the Balance: Linking Traditions and Technology. XXII IUFRO World Congress Abstracts. International Forestry Review 7(5): 174.
| poster |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

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Exterior uses

Edlund, M.-L. 1998. Durability of Wood in Ground Contact Tested in Field and Laboratory. Doctoral thesis. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria 81.

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Klippi, M. 2004. The Main Factors and Development Trends in the Selected Markets of Playground and Garden Structures in Europe. Master's Thesis. Helsinki University of Technology. Department of Forest Products Technology.

Manninen, J. 2003. Development of new product alternatives for Thermowood. Master's Thesis. Helsinki University of Technology. Department of Forest Products Technology.

Nevalainen, S. 2004. Decay resistance of Scots pine from Northern Finland. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| poster |

Roos, A. & Nyrud, A. Q. 2008. Description of green versus environmentally indifferent consumers of wood products in Scandivavia: flooring and decking. Journal of Wood Science 54(5): 402–407.
| www |

Roos, A. & Nyrud, A. Q. 2008. Preferences for pressure-treated wooden deck materials. Wood and Fiber Science 40(3): 436–447.
| www |

Sandberg, D. 1999. Weathering of Radial and Tangential Wood Surfaces of Pine and Spruce. Holzforcshung 53(4): 355–364.
| www |

Stöd, R. 2009. Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from commercial thinnings in Finland. In: Ispas, M. & Gurau, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conferece ICWSE "Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium" 2009: 15–20.

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

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Wood-composite panels

Englund, F. & Nussbaum, R. M. 2000. Monoterpenes in Scots pine and Norway spruce and their emission during kiln drying. Holzforschung 54(5): 449–456.
| www |

Grekin, M. 2006. Nordic Scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products. Literature survey. Metlan työraportteja/Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 36.
| pdf |

Grekin, M. 2006. Wood colour in sapwood and heartwood of Nordic Scots pine and the changes under UV radiation. In: Kurjatko, S. et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the 5th IUFRO symposium Wood Structure and Properties '06: 233–238.
| table of contents |

Grekin, M. 2007. Color and color uniformity variation of Scots pine wood in the air-dry condition. Wood and Fiber Science 39(2): 279–290.
| www |

Grekin, M. & Verkasalo, E. 2007. Modelling the variation in latewood proportion of Scots pine wood from Finland and Sweden. In: Van Acker, J. & Usenius, A. (eds.). Modelling the wood chain: Forestry - Wood industry - Wood product markets. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 conference 2007: 111–116.
| presentation | poster |

Grekin, M. et al. 2005. Colour change of Nordic Scots pine wood under UV radiation - A laboratory approach. IUFRO WP S5.01.04 Conference: Connection between forest resources and wood quality - modelling approaches and simulation software.
| pdf | poster |

Larsen, A. et al. 2000. Emission of volatile organic compounds from wood and wood-based materials. Miljøstyrelsen, Working Report 15.
| pdf |

Simonson, C. J. et al. 2001. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. VTT Publications 431.
| pdf |

Verkasalo, E. et al. 2005. Specific wood and timber properties and competitive ability of Nordic Scots pine in mechanical wood processing. In: Teischinger, A. & Van Acker, J. (eds.). Broad Spectrum Utilisation of Wood. Proceedings of the COST Action E44 Conference 2005. Lignovisionen 9: 27–38.
| presentation |

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