Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2

Policies, methods and tools for visitor management – proceedings of the second International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, June 16–20, 2004, Rovaniemi, Finland

Authors: Sievänen, Tuija, Erkkonen, Joel, Jokimäki, Jukka, Saarinen, Jarkko, Tuulentie, Seija & Virtanen, Eija (eds.)
Pages: 417


The second International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in recreational and protected areas (MMV 2) -conference provided a forum for research presentations and for exchange of information and experience of managerial policies, problems, practices and solutions regarding issues related to monitoring and management of visitor flows in recreational and protected areas. These proceedings cover ten research topics, which were chosen to reflect current on-going research work internationally in the field of visitor monitoring and management. Monitoring visitor flows and also other types of recreational inventories are discussed in 16 articles and four posters on visitor monitoring methods, experiences of national, regional and on-site visitor inventories and visitor flow modeling and data management. Nineteen papers and three posters are discussing visitor management research from several perspectives. Articles related to issues of visitor conflicts, implementation of visitor information in management processes, different aspects of sustainability and carrying capacity issues in recreational settings make the largest group of papers. The third major subject group of articles (16) deal with visitor management policy issues, and nature tourism policies in recreational and protected areas. The last topics include economic and social impacts of recreation and nature tourism in the surroundings communities, regions and countries.


visitor monitoring, visitor management, visitor survey, visitor counting, visitor conflicts, recreational impacts, nature tourism

Downloadable files

Preface, opening address and contents p. 3-8 (pdf, size 289 kb)
Tuija Sievänen and Seija Tuulentie; Hannu Raitio

Keynote addresses

Monitoring and management of recreation in protected areas: the contributions and limitations of science p 10-17 (pdf, size 198 kb)
David N. Cole
Trends affecting tourism in protected areas p 18-26 (pdf, size 861 kb)
Paul F.J. Eagles

Visitor monitoring methods

Designing a sampling system for concurrently measuring outdoor recreation visitation and describing visitor characteristics (pdf, size 81 kb)
Donald B.K. English, Stanley J. Zarnoch & Susan M. Kocis
Affects of road sign wording on visitor survey – non-response bias (pdf, size 82 kb)
Susan M. Kocis, Stanley J. Zarnoch & Donald B.K. English
The development of a remote-download system for visitor counting (pdf, size 912 kb)
Simon Melville & Juha Ruohonen
Mapping the intensity of recreation impact in the NP Losiny Ostrov, Moscow (pdf, size 198 kb)
Mark S. Shapochkin, Vera V. Kiseleva, Oxana V. Syriamkina & Vladimir F. Nikitin

Experiences of national, regional and on-site visitor inventories

Comparing indicator effectiveness for monitoring visitor impact at Intervales State Park, Brazil: park ranger-measured versus specialist-measured experience (pdf, size 223 kb)
Anna Júlia Passold, Teresa Cristina Magro & Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto
Assessing recreation in the Danish nature – present experiences, towards a future monitoring system (pdf, size 236 kb)
Hans Skov-Petersen & Frank Søndergaard Jensen
Actual condition and problem of visitor use in Jozankei National Forest, Japan (pdf, size 527 kb)
Masayoshi Takahashi

Visitor flow modelling and data management

A framework for integrating visual quality modelling within an agent-based hiking simulation for the Swiss Alps (pdf, size 602 kb)
Duncan Cavens, Christian Gloor, Kai Nagel, Eckart Lange & Willy A. Schmid
FORVISITS: modelling visitor flows at a regional level (pdf, size 587 kb)
Sjerp de Vries, André Jellema & Martin Goossen
Recreational trail use of residents in Jasper National Park, Canada (pdf, size 328 kb)
Wolfgang Haider, Colleen Anderson, Ben Beardmore & Don A. Anderson
Development of a spatial values-based recreation planning framework for Canadian Crown lands (pdf, size 223 kb)
Michael Yuan, Norman McIntyre, R.J. Payne & Jeffery Moore
A model for evaluating dispersed outdoor recreation use estimation (pdf, size 237 kb)
Stanley J. Zarnoch, Donald B.K. English & Susan M. Kocis

Workshop: Travel simulation modeling for recreation planning

Monitoring and managing recreational use in backcountry landscapes using computer-based simulation modeling (pdf, size 211 kb)
Steve Lawson, Bob Itami, Randy Gimblett & Robert Manning
Computer simulation as a tool for developing alternatives for managing crowding at wilderness campsites on Isle Royale (pdf, size 178 kb)
Steve Lawson, Ann Mayo Kiely & Robert E. Manning
Understanding recreation flow to protect wilderness resources at Joshua Tree National Park, California (pdf, size 658 kb)
Erik Murdock
Simulation modeling of visitor flows: where have we been and where are we going? (pdf, size 432 kb)
Jan W. van Wagtendonk

Visitor/User conflicts and other behavior studies

Interaction between nature protection and leisure groups, an example of the largest protected area surrounding Lake Greifensee, canton Zurich, Switzerland (pdf, size 378 kb)
Patricia Bernet
Do walkers stay on footpaths? An observational study of Cwm Idwal in the Snowdonia National Park (pdf, size 354 kb)
Ian Keirle & Mathew Stephens
Hofstede’s measure of cultural values in a national forest recreation context (pdf, size 252 kb)
Chieh-Lu Li, Harry C. Zinn, Garry E. Chick, Alan R. Graefe & James D. Absher
Living in the forest: meanings and use of recreational residences (pdf, size 484 kb)
Norman McIntyre & Berit Svanqvist
Recreation experience preferences and activity profiles in a Crown forest landscape in Ontario, Canada (pdf, size 223 kb)
R.J. Payne, Norman McIntyre, Michael Yuan, Jeffery Moore, Lori Bradford & Steve Elliott
Outdoor recreation activities in nature protection areas – situation in Germany (pdf, size 200 kb)
Stefan Türk, Edwin Jakob, Alexander Krämer & Ralf Roth

Visitor information and visitor management

Characteristics and use patterns of visitors to dispersed areas of urban national forests (pdf, size 87 kb)
Donald B.K. English, Susan M. Kocis and Stanley J. Zarnoch
User attitude towards traffic control in Shiretoko and Daisetsuzan National Parks in Japan (pdf, size 568 kb)
Akihiro Kobayashi
Evaluation of the success of visitor flow management projects in the Southern Black Forest Nature Park (pdf, size 113 kb)
Alexander Krämer, Ralf Roth, Achim Schmidt & Stefan Türk
Regulation of Visitor activities in the DINP (pdf, size 579 kb)
Zsuzsanna Szilágyi
Trip motivations among water-based recreationists (pdf, size 77 kb)
Brijesh Thapa, John J. Confer & Jamie Mendelsohn
Visitors of Parque Florestal Quedas do Rio Bonito, Lavras (Mg), Brazil: a management planning based on profile, perceptions, needs and motivations (pdf, size 112 kb)
Regiane Vilas Bôas, Antônio Cláudio Davide, Cláudia M. Ribeiro Andrade

Sustainability and carrying capacity studies in recreational settings

PAN Parks implementation process: cross cultural comparison – Bieszczady & Slovenski Raij National Parks (pdf, size 267 kb)
Christelle van den Berg, Femke van Bree & Stuart Cottrell
Tourism monitoring system based on the concept of carrying capacity – the case of the regional natural park Pfyn-Finges (Switzerland) (pdf, size 213 kb)
Christophe Clivaz, Yves Hausser & Jacques Michelet
Measures for developing sustainability of nature tourism in protected areas (pdf, size 228 kb)
Liisa Kajala, Joel Erkkonen & Minttu Perttula
Improving the environmental conditions in intensively used rural areas (pdf, size 222 kb)
Teresa Cristina Magro, Silvia Yochie Kataoka & Cora-Thea Gytha van Bentveld
Visitor monitoring as a prerequisite of assessments in Natura 2000 sites (pdf, size 395 kb)
Ulrike Pröbstl
Social carrying capacity of canoeists in Austria´s Danube Floodplains National Park (pdf, size 976 kb)
Petra Sterl, Simone Wagner & Arne Arnberger
Research on ecological and social sustainability of nature tourism in northern Finland (pdf, size 335 kb)
Anne Tolvanen, Jussi Rämet, Pirkko Siikamäki, Anne Törn & Markku Orell

Management politics and methods

Visitor management and revegetation efforts on a degraded Lake Superior cliff edge (pdf, size 80 kb)
Ken Gilbertson, Dave Olfelt & Phillip Leversedge
Canoes versus birds or canoeists versus canoeists? Combining interview survey and visitor monitoring to inform visitor management in the Mueritz National Park (pdf, size 322 kb)
Malte Grossmann, Axel Klaphake & Jürgen Meyerhoff
Development of a values-based approach to managing recreation on Canadian Crown lands (pdf, size 232 kb)
Norman McIntyre, Michael Yuan, R.J. Payne & Jeffery Moore
The public functions of parks and protected areas (pdf, size 81 kb)
Thomas A. More & Robert E. Manning
Value based decision making process for strategic visitor management in the Natura 2000 area Lech River Valley, Tyrol (pdf, size 1513 kb)
Yvonne Pflüger
Visitor perceptions of the inscription on the world heritage list: the use of stated choice methods (pdf, size 437 kb)
Yasushi Shoji & Kazushige Yamaki
Sustainable tourism and large protected areas – analysis models and success criteria of a sustainable tourism management using the example of the Alps (pdf, size 384 kb)
Dominik Siegrist
Classification of trail settings in an alpine national park using the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum approach (pdf, size 140 kb)
Kazushige Yamaki & Yasushi Shoji

Nature tourism policies in recreational and protected areas

A modern net of paths for every type of hiking: new possibilities in order to discover and to promote a protected area (pdf, size 1069 kb)
Gianluca Bambi & Vittorio Panero
Double strategy towards sustainable tourism: offers for visitors and opportunities for people employed in tourism in the Wadden Sea National Park in Schleswig-Holstein (pdf, size 496 kb)
Christiane Gätje
General principles for sustainable nature tourism in protected areas administrated by Metsähallitus, Finland (pdf, size 59 kb)
Jouko Högmander & Anneli Leivo
Sustainable tourism in biosphere reserves of East Central European countries – case studies from Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic (pdf, size 333 kb)
Birgit Nolte
Profiling recreational users of national parks, national hiking areas and wilderness areas in Finland (pdf, size 94 kb)
Eija Pouta, Tuija Sievänen & Marjo Neuvonen
Image as an important factor of destination management (pdf, size 83 kb)
Katerina Ryglova & Jana Turcinkova

Economic and social impacts of recreation and nature tourism

Social carrying capacity of an urban park in Vienna (pdf, size 773 kb)
Arne Arnberger, Wolfgang Haider & Andreas Muhar
National park designation – visitor flows and tourism impact (pdf, size 241 kb)
Peter Fredman


Relations between IUCN-zoning and tourism in the Hungarian national parks (pdf, size 213 kb)
Borbála Benkhard
The effect of the tourism of the Hortobágy National Park on the surrounding settlements – lesson of a questionnaire survey (pdf, size 217 kb)
Réka Bodnár
Push and pull assemblages for modelling visitor’s flows in complex landscapes (pdf, size 584 kb)
Barbara Dumont & Hubert Gulinck
Environmental GIS in the management of visitor flows (pdf, size 409 kb)
Leena Kopperoinen, Petri J. Shemeikka & Visa Lindblom
Visitor surveys and visitor impact monitoring in recreational areas in state forests of Estonia (pdf, size 65 kb)
Marge Rammo, Kalle Karoles, Kaidi Maran, Jaak Jansen, Anu Almik & Rein Rammo
Visual obstruction of herb vegetation, defining standards for natural barriers (pdf, size 81 kb)
Pieter Roovers, Barbara Dumont, Hubert Gulinck & Martin Hermy
The potentials for developing cross-border tourism between Poland and Slovakia in the Tatra Mountains (pdf, size 686 kb)
Karolina Taczanowska

List of contributors

Contributors (pdf, size 655 kb)

Bibliographic information

Sievänen, Tuija, Erkkonen, Joel, Jokimäki, Jukka, Saarinen, Jarkko, Tuulentie, Seija & Virtanen, Eija (eds.). 2004. Policies, methods and tools for visitor management – proceedings of the second International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, June 16–20, 2004, Rovaniemi, Finland. Metlan tyraportteja / Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2. 417 p. ISBN 951-40-1930-X (PDF), ISBN 951-40-1924-5 (paperback). Available at:

Contact information

Tuija Sievänen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, Helsinki Research Unit, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail

Other information

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